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With the sudden abdication of Sultan Muhammad V of Kelantan as the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong (YDPA) of Malaysia, we’ve seen many people rushing to crack open their Form 6 Pengajian Am (General Studies) notes or call up their lawyer friends to ask what’s up.

Picture Credit: gerbangsejarahm.com

In case you were wondering, yes it’s the first time a ruler has resigned as the Agong.

Picture Credit: Majilis Raja-Raja

While Malaysians generally know that the role of the Agong rotates amongst rulers every 5 years (right??), not many may be aware of other aspects of the role and its history.

Picture Credit: Istana Negara

So, as we welcome Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah as the 16th YDPA on 30th July 2019, here’s 5 royal facts about the Agong institution you should know:

1. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong was nearly called Yang di-Pertuan Besar

When the role of the YDPA was recommended into the Malayan constitution by the Reid Commission, the Conference of Rulers had a choice to name the “King of Malaysia” as Yang di-Pertuan Agong or Yang di-Pertuan Besar.

Picture Credit: PeKhabar

The term Yang di-Pertuan Agong was selected, which translates to “He Who is Made Supreme Lord”.

2. Only rulers of 9 states are eligible to be Agong

This is due to the establishment of the Conference of Rulers which consists of the rulers of Malay states prior to independence.

Picture Credit: PeKhabar

The 9 states are:

  • Negeri Sembilan
  • Selangor
  • Perlis
  • Terengganu
  • Kedah
  • Kelantan
  • Pahang
  • Johor
  • Perak

3. The cycle of rotation was initially established based on seniority

When the office was established in 1957, the order of seniority of the rulers was based on the length of their reigns on the state thrones.

When the first cycle of rotation was completed in 1994, the order of the states in the first cycle became the basis of the order for the second cycle.

The established cycle of rotation is:

  1. Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan
  2. Sultan of Selangor
  3. Raja of Perlis
  4. Sultan of Terengganu
  5. Sultan of Kedah
  6. Sultan of Kelantan
  7. Sultan of Pahang
  8. Sultan of Johor
  9. Sultan of Perak

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong will not be re-elected until after all the other states had taken their turns.

4. Malaysia’s first YDPA wasn’t the first choice!

As mentioned before, the cycle of rotation was established based on seniority (length of reign) of the rulers.

Based on this criteria, Major-Jeneral Sultan Ibrahim ibni Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor, who was appointed Sultan of Johor in 1895 was the longest serving sultan in Malaya during 1957.

Major-Jeneral Sultan Ibrahim ibni Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor
(Picture Credit: Wikipedia)

But he declined due to his advanced age (84 years old).

Next in line was Sultan Sir Abu Bakar Riayatuddin Al-Muadzam Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdullah Al-Mutassim Billah Shah of Pahang who had begun his rule in 1932.

However, he did not secure the necessary votes in the Conference of Rulers, so the honour went to Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad of Negeri Sembilan who had ascended to his throne in 1933.

Tuanku Abdul Rahman ibni Almarhum Tuanku Muhammad of Negeri Sembilan
(Picture Credit: Istana Negara)

His Majesty was then appointed as the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of then Federation of Malaya, and forever immortalised on our Ringgits.

Picture Credit: The Star

5. The YDPA’s installation ceremony features a special headdress known as Tengkolok Diraja (Royal Headdress)

Picture Credit: Istana Negara

The Tengkolok Diraja has graced the heads of well… the Heads of Malaysia since 1957. The only exception was during the reign of the Sultan of Johor as their royal regalia differs from traditional Malay clothing.

While the tengkolok is a traditional fixture for most of the Malay royalties, this particular headdress is folded, or solek, in a special design called “Dendam Tak Sudah” which originates from Negeri Sembilan.

Picture Credit: PakDin.my

Made with songket fabric, the Tengkolok Diraja is embellished with a sparkling new moon and 14-point star made of white gold. In the middle of the star is the colourful emblem of the Government of Malaysia.


There you have it, folks! TRP’s 5 royal facts about the Agong institution you should know.

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(ASAL-USUL KESULTANAN MELAYU)
(Pakaian Istiadat Diraja)

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